Blackjack is a card game where players compete against the dealer. The goal is to obtain a hand value that is closer to 21 than the dealer’s without exceeding it. The game is played with a standard 52-card deck. Jokers are removed and the deck is shuffled before dealing. A player may bet as much or as little as they wish. Each player is dealt two cards. They can choose to hit (receive another card) or stand (stop receiving cards). When a player has an Ace and a Jack, Queen, or King, they have a Blackjack.
When a player has Blackjack, the game ends and they collect their original wagers. If the dealer has a Blackjack, they will also collect any insurance wagers. A player who has Blackjack against a dealer will win even money – their original bet is returned and they get a 2-1 payoff on any insurance wagers they made.
Some casinos have special rules that change the house edge and make certain strategies less effective. For example, some will reduce the 3 to 2 payout for blackjacks to only 6 to 5. This increases the house edge and takes more money out of people’s pockets. It also makes card counting basically useless.
If a player is unsure of their hand’s strength, they can choose to split. This allows them to double a card against any dealer card except for an Ace. They can also double against a 10, but should never split a 9 or an 8. Splitting an Ace and 8 creates a weak 16 (which beats the dealer), while splitting a 10 and an 8 makes a strong hand that is paid 1:1.
Many blackjack games allow players to place a side bet in addition to their main wager. These side bets can be placed on the total of a player’s hand, the probability of beating the dealer, or specific dealer behaviors. Often, these side bets are called insurance bets or surrender bets.
To become a blackjack dealer, an individual must complete a training program and pass a background check. A prospective dealer must also be 18 or over and have no felony convictions. If a casino suspects a dealer has a felony conviction on their record, they will not hire them. A blackjack dealer must be able to communicate well and handle a high volume of customers.
Research has shown that unjustified confidence in one’s knowledge can have a number of psychological and behavioral consequences while playing blackjack. These include increased positive outcome expectations, decreased state anxiety, and increased risk taking. The present study uses a laboratory blackjack game to investigate the impact of unjustified confidence on these consequences and to examine their interrelationships. The results provide an important contribution to the growing literature on the ramifications of situations where confidence increases independent of knowledge.